The Roman military diploma discovered at Atmageaua Tătărască – Sarsânlar (Zafirovo, Bulgaria)

A tabella II of a Roman military diploma, copied after an imperial constitution issued in AD 54 (CIL XVI 3) is published once again in these pages. On the basis of archival information and new research on the table, kept by the National Museum of Romanian History in Bucharest, the article provides a reconstruction of the text and short histories of the mentioned military units.

Purpurarii et vestiarii. El comercio de púrpuras y vestidos en Roma

The work analyses the production and marketing of purple in Roman times. The analysis of merchants related to the sale of purple, purpurarii, and merchants of the best fabrics and dresses, vestiarii, allow access to visitors were the characters involved with the making and marketing of clothing and fabrics in the Metropolis. The fame of certain colours soon attracted the attention of the Roman elites, and during the imperial period, the purple became a state issue, allowing its use by a small number of people linked to the emperor’s family. At this point we make a brief review of the different leges sumptuariae. In this regard, we have taken advantage of, in addition to commenting that the places were more important for the extraction of this dye, to comment that they were the diverse productive techniques of the Mediterranean and Atlantic purples.

Contribution sur le macellum d’Histria

L’existence du macellum à Histria fait la preuve sur la situation économique stable de la ville pendant toute l’époque romaine et sur la capacité de récupération de la communauté urbaine après les invasions de 238. Notre contribution est axée sur les caractéristiques de cet édifice et sur la reconstruction de macellum (par dons) afin de proposer une nouvelle hypothèse concernant l’emplacement de ce bâtiment à Histria.

Tomb number 2 of the Church of St. Michael in Mornago (Varese, Italy). Anthropological and archaeological study of medieval funeral remains

The current paper aims to present the archaeological and anthropological results of the investigation conducted on a medieval burial which presents several features that recall the Longobard culture. After the archaeological evaluations on the architectural morphology of the tomb and on the grave goods, we proceeded with the anthropological investigations on human and animal bone remains. These analyses allowed us to formulate a hypothesis related to this particular funeral ritual from ancient Longobard tradition. The tomb number 2 of St. Michael church in Mornago represents a rare evidence of inhumation with bird in Northern Italy.

Pottery kiln: A technological approach to Early Eneolithic black-topped production in Transylvania

The present paper uses the parameters revealed by archaeometric investigations of the Foeni group Early Eneolithic pottery from Alba Iulia–Lumea Nouă site, in order to make possible the experimental reconstruction of the black-topped pottery local firing technique. The distinctive features of this fineware category are the well burnished red body, with black (sometimes metallic) look on the rim, as well as on the pot interior. The results indicate the chromatic effect is due to the controlled mixed firing, oxidation and reduction atmosphere, in one step operation technique. This process was carried out using an updraught kiln with a circular base having 0.80 m in diameter and a height of 0.90 m. During firings the temperatures reached did not exceed the temperature indicated by the analyses (700–850°C), and both firing atmospheres had been achieved simultaneously. The experimental samples resembled Foeni vessels completely. The most important aspect of the firing method which we used is the fact that the results are controllable and repeatable.

At the borders of Ancient Dacia. The Danube Gorge sector

The construction of the Dacian Kingdom in the Transylvanian area would not have been possible without the favourable combination between the military and political infrastructure and the exceptional military capacities of certain warlords. The Roman Empire managed to install itself on the entire right bank of the Danube, as part of an Imperial policy. Thus, the Danube became, after lengthy efforts, an important natural obstacle between the Roman world and the “Barbarians”. In our view, a special interest zone for understanding the said phenomena is the Danube Gorge as here, for over a century, the armies of Rome and those of the Dacian kings were in direct and permanent contact, separated only by the great European river. A series of four Dacian forts defended this area, the most important being the one from Divici–Grad, where two curved weapons, typical to Dacian professional warriors were found. It is likely that the garrison stationed here, obviously related to the power centre from the Șureanu Mountains, was composed of elite soldiers, as the weapons, type of fortification tower itself, and geographical position converge towards this hypothesis.

Le système de la vengeance dans les poèmes d’Homère

The article deals with terms connected to revenge in Homeric poems. The examination puts into attention seven ways of revenge: (1) the penal composition; (2) the exile; (3) the setting of chains; (4) the divine punishment; (6) the revenge of a friend in a battle; and (7) the oppression of an individual belonging to a lower social status. The interactions between the tribunals and revenge of private persons are also studied. The judgement court and the revenge of individuals are described by different terms. In the society contemporary to Homer, the court does not interfere in individual revenge.

The concept cum dignitate otium in Cicero’s writings

The paper investigates the social and political concept ‘cum dignitate otium’ in Cicero’s writings. The concept is commonly translated as “leisure with dignity”. The meaning is not so simple. The concept can be either a political or a social category. As a political category, ‘cum dignitate otium’ means “peace with dignity” that the best citizens, optimates, wealthy and powerful statesmen had in the Roman society of Cicero’s times. It was optimates’ activity contrasted to other people’s activities. Cicero also used the concept ‘cum dignitate otium’ in a social sense. It meant “peaceful leisure full of studies” or “peace in private affairs”.

Democratic elements in the Spartan political structure

The article deals with the dynamics of the Spartan statehood. We argue that this development was going in a different direction than, for example, in Athens. In Sparta, where the initial elements of democracy were quite strong, gradually went a process of strengthening of oligarchic principles. Even the Ephorate, which initially functioned as an organ of the Spartan democracy, had lost all of its democratic features by the end of the classical period. We believe that at this time the board of ephors had already become an integral part of the ruling oligarchs. Sources’ analysis shows that in the classic period the state system of Sparta gradually evolved from the traditional “hoplite politeia” to the clannish oligarchy. As a result, the ruling elite became less dependent and accountable to the common people than it was before. If the late Sparta can be called democratic polis, it is only in comparison with the oriental despotism.