The concept cum dignitate otium in Cicero’s writings

The paper investigates the social and political concept ‘cum dignitate otium’ in Cicero’s writings. The concept is commonly translated as “leisure with dignity”. The meaning is not so simple. The concept can be either a political or a social category. As a political category, ‘cum dignitate otium’ means “peace with dignity” that the best citizens, optimates, wealthy and powerful statesmen had in the Roman society of Cicero’s times. It was optimates’ activity contrasted to other people’s activities. Cicero also used the concept ‘cum dignitate otium’ in a social sense. It meant “peaceful leisure full of studies” or “peace in private affairs”.

Democratic elements in the Spartan political structure

The article deals with the dynamics of the Spartan statehood. We argue that this development was going in a different direction than, for example, in Athens. In Sparta, where the initial elements of democracy were quite strong, gradually went a process of strengthening of oligarchic principles. Even the Ephorate, which initially functioned as an organ of the Spartan democracy, had lost all of its democratic features by the end of the classical period. We believe that at this time the board of ephors had already become an integral part of the ruling oligarchs. Sources’ analysis shows that in the classic period the state system of Sparta gradually evolved from the traditional “hoplite politeia” to the clannish oligarchy. As a result, the ruling elite became less dependent and accountable to the common people than it was before. If the late Sparta can be called democratic polis, it is only in comparison with the oriental despotism.

Herodotus’ Renaissance return to Western-European culture

Herodotus can be counted among the most important ancient historians. Indeed, his Histories represent the main source for the Graeco–Persian wars. However, the reception of his work has undergone many changes since the time it was written. The following study deals with Herodotus’ reception in the time of the Renaissance. The author tries to answer and explain two basic questions that are narrowly connected with his name. The first problem relates to his veracity. The study addresses the question of how he was accepted by humanists — was he considered a faithful historian or a less trustworthy storyteller? The second problem relates to him as a pagan author being accepted by Christians. The author focuses on the mechanism which enabled this unusual combination.

Archaeological palynology in Romania ― a review of its past and current state

Pollen analyses in Romanian archaeology are not new and the interest concerning the opportunities offered by this discipline is on the rise. The increasing visibility of the discipline reflects a mentality change in terms of research methodology in Romanian archaeology, especially in prehistoric archaeology. This paper will focus on a short critical survey of the development of archaeological palynology in Romania, from its beginning in the early 20th century to present

Technological characteristics of the Cucuteni C pottery from Poduri–Dealul Ghindaru

The present work aims at investigating the technology used in the production of the Cucuteni C ceramic ware discovered at Poduri–Dealul Ghindaru archaeological site, with the help of a multidisciplinary approach making use of chemical and mineralogical analysis. The studied potsherds have shown the presence of different types of tempers, as determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The type of tempers present within the ceramic matrix was identified by EDX and XRD analysis, while the dispersion of the different additives in the ceramic microstructure was determined by SEM measurements

Les découvertes des armes en bronze de la fin de l’âge du bronze sur le plateau de Bârlad

A surge in bronze metalworking can be seen taking place at the end of the Bronze Age, with ten deposits, containing 109 objects, and 28 isolated finds taking place in the Bârlad Plateau. The list of discoveries contains sickles, celts, broadswords, daggers, spearheads, and adornments and dress elements; the least represented are weapons, with only seven items. The broadsword from Epureni is of the Krasnyj Majak type, typical of the Sabatinovka culture, while the daggers are of the Labojkovka type, Malye Kopani variant. The three spearheads are of the Dremajlovka and Krasnyj Majak type. The weapons are typical of the Sabatinovka culture and are rare east of the Prut, in the region of the Noua culture.