The symbols of royal power look like being similar to each other in various cultures of the Ancient World, but this resemblance may hide the regional specifics from the researchers. Early Greek sceptre and Hittite kalmus are considered to be equivalents of mace and of shepherd’s crook. However, this theory is not very convincing. Analysing the textual attestations of the Ancient Greek sceptre and Hittite kalmus, we have found out that these objects were considered as close to throwing weapon and therefore associated with a bolt of lightning, the symbol of the storm god. Archaeological evidences make clear that the symbols of power like sceptre have their origin in a weapon similar to spear.
Le système de la vengeance dans les poèmes d’Homère
The article deals with terms connected to revenge in Homeric poems. The examination puts into attention seven ways of revenge: (1) the penal composition; (2) the exile; (3) the setting of chains; (4) the divine punishment; (6) the revenge of a friend in a battle; and (7) the oppression of an individual belonging to a lower social status. The interactions between the tribunals and revenge of private persons are also studied. The judgement court and the revenge of individuals are described by different terms. In the society contemporary to Homer, the court does not interfere in individual revenge.