Old Hittite Opposition in the Religious Aspect

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 83-92 Vladimir SHELESTIN ABSTRACT The paper proposes a new approach to the conflict between Hattušili I and Tawananna using the new interpretation of some historiolae of Zuwi’s ritual. A political interpretation of these historiolae explains their content better than a magical one. Tracing the parallels between the animal figures in Zuwi’s ritual and in the political rhetoric of Hattušili I allows us to reconstruct an alliance between the royal relatives as well as the priesthood being the opponents to the Old Hittite external expansion.   REZUMAT Studiul de față propune o nouă abordare cu privire la conflictul dintre Hattušili I și Tawananna pe baza unei noi analize asupra a unor historiolae din cadrul ritualului lui Zuwi. O interpretare politică a acestora poate explica întregul context mai bine decât una strict religioasă. Identificarea paralelelor dintre figurile animaliere din ritualul lui Zuwi și retorica politică a lui(…)

Egyptian Control in the Southern Levant and the Late Bronze Age Crisis

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 55-82 Andres Nõmmik ABSTRACT In the Late Bronze Age, Egypt controlled the city-states of the Southern Levant, even though local rulers maintained partial autonomy. However, the period ended with a crisis that seems to have considerably changed the local power structures along with the disappearance of the Egyptian empire in the region. This paper investigates shows how both Egyptian power and its relatively rapid disappearance worsened the crisis. Three factors are highlighted: Egyptian policy of weakening the defensive capabilities of Levantine city-states, the Egyptians’ demand for different resources and how these two aspects made city-states unable to adapt successfully to the new post- Egyptian situation.   REZUMAT În Epoca Târzie a Bronzului, Egiptul controla orașele-stat din sudul Levantului, în ciuda faptului că liderii locali încă păstrau o oarecare autonomie. Totuși, această perioadă s-a încheiat printr-o criză care a modificat profund structurile puterilor locale, împreună cu(…)

Religious Syncretism and Control Over the Territory: Pharaohs in Southern Levant During the Late Bronze Age

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 41-54 Giulia TUCCI ABSTRACT Egyptian domination on the territories of Southern Levant during the Late Bronze Age brought the conquerors to maintain close contacts with the local population. Among other techniques of domination, the Pharaohs made massive use of political and religious propaganda. The identification of some divinities of the Egyptian and Palestinian Pantheons enabled both populations to share the same places of worship, which promoted contact with local communities and made integration and life together possible. This cultural entanglement operation had both ideological and functional goals. Palestinian shrines and temples became multifunctional centers well integrated into the socio-cultural context, used as the centers for the collection of taxes imposed by the Egyptian rulers.   REZUMAT Dominația Egiptului asupra teritoriilor din sudul Levantului pe parcursul Epocii Târzii a Bronzului i-a adus pe cuceritori în situația de a menține contacte strânse cu populațiile locale. Printre alte(…)

Sumerischer Widerstand gegen semitische Herrschaft Migration, Machtkämpfe und Demographie im 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr.

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 11-40 Walter Sommerfeld   ABSTRACT This study deals with historical and demographic aspects from the early history of Mesopotamia. 1 The history of the immigration of the Semites in the 3rd millennium B.C. is presented from the oldest evidence to the domination of the Akkadian Empire (ca. 2900-2300). Especially the names of persons and places are informative. The integration into the autochthonous Sumerian society seems to have proceeded largely without conflict. 2 After the Semitic dynasty of Akkade had gained dominance for about 150 years around 2300, there are detailed reports about several large uprisings in Sumer. Their backgrounds are analysed. 3 From the detailed data on the high numbers of victims, the question of the consequences for Sumerian society arises. Various methods of historical demography are presented, the results of research are referred to, conclusions on population density are attempted, and strategies for conflict(…)