Show Trials and The Opposition to Pelopidas and Epameinondas

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 245-261 Salvatore TUFANO ABSTRACT The paper suggests that there are traces of political opposition in Thebes during the years of its hegemony in Greece (371-362 BCE). The analysis of a trial against Epameinondas in 369 BCE, signals this event as a political trial. Other episodes during these years demonstrate that this and other trials can be considered as examples of Schauprozess, as lately theorized by Koskenniemi. In a system where political opposition was restrained by the lack of institutional provisos, the trials were used to attack opponents, using legal means for achieving political ends. REZUMAT Articolul de față sugerează faptul că pot fi identificate anumite amprente ale unor confruntări de ordin politic în Theba pe parcursul hegemoniei sale asupra Greciei (371-362 î.Hr.). Analizarea procesului împotriva lui Epaminondas din 369 î.Hr. scoate în evidență caracterul politic al acestuia. Alte episoade identificate pe parcursul acelor ani demonstrează(…)

Compliance and Endurance. The Athenian Power Building through the Melian Dialogue

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 233-244 Eleni TZOVLA ABSTRACT The Melian dialogue in the 5th book of Thucydides can be seen as one of the most important texts for political science. Two opposing political ideas are confronted by the historian: on the one hand Thucydides presents the Athenians as promoters of the idea of legitimacy of unlimited growth of power; on the other hand, there were the Melians who did not accept the ‘law of the stronger’. The Melians were conquered, and their arguments could not save them, but in the longer perspective the Athenian empire was destined to collapse. Through the dialogue, Thucydides compares the ‘law of the stronger’ ignoring the rights of others, and the appeal to justice by the weaker party trying to demonstrate their reasons to oppose the imperialist power. REZUMAT Dialogul Melian din cartea a V-a a lui Tucidide poate fi văzut ca unul dintre(…)

Monarchy in the Iron Age Levant and Archaic Greece: the Rulers of Corinth in a Comparative Context

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 179-231 Mait KÕIV ABSTRACT Tyrannies emerging in the Greek poleis during the Archaic period (8.–6. centuries BC), among which the rule of the Kypselid dynasty in Corinth appears as an outstanding example, were in many respects comparable to the city-state monarchies in Ancient Near East, particularly in Iron Age Levant. The rulers performed important governmental functions and were able to legitimate their power for a notable period of time. However, differently from the East, these monarchies were never wholly entrenched and were eventually replaced by republican governments. The article explores the reason for this difference, suggesting that it was caused by the relative egalitarianism of the Greek society precluding an accumulation of sufficient resources for entrenching the power. REZUMAT Tiraniile apărute în cetățile grecești în timpul perioadei Arhaice (secolele VIII-VI î.Hr), în rândul cărora dinastia Kypselidă din Corint se remarcă în mod exceptional, au fost(…)

The Tyranny of the Peisistratidai in Athens: Expenses, Revenues and the Opposition to the Sole Rule

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 157-178 Priit-Hendrik KALDMA ABSTRACT The late archaic city-state of Athens was ruled first by Peisistratos who became a tyrant after three successive coup d’états. The rule of Peisistratos and his sons secured inner stability in Athens after the preceding internal conflicts. The tyrants promoted political and religious unification and centralization of the Athenian community, which involved the establishment or promotion of festivals and the construction of various public buildings. The architectural plans of the Peisistratids formed a major part of their politics. Their building policy required considerable resources, which could have been perceived as oppressive, and could have significantly contributed to their overthrowal. REZUMAT În perioada arhaică târzie, orașul-stat al Atenei a fost condus initial de către Peisistratos, care a devenit tiran după trei uzurpări succesive. Domnia lui Peisistratos și a fiilor săi a garantat securitatea internă a Atenei, în urma precedentelor conflicte. Tiranii au(…)

«Like an unseen god» (Ctesias F1b §21, 7 Lenfant): The Unapproachability of the Near Eastern Kings in Greek Sources as Tool of Power

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 143-156 Luca MACALE ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to review the inaccessibility of the Near Eastern kings in Greek sources as a tool of power: inaccessibility, in fact, was considered by the Greeks an essential feature in order to rule over Asia; nonetheless, it is important to note that Greek sources on the one hand emphasize the importance and the political use of this tool and, on the other hand, reflect on the weakness of power built through the king’s inaccessibility. REZUMAT Obiectivul acestui articol este de a analiza felul în care inaccesibilitatea suveranilor din Orientul Apropiat a fost prezentată în sursele grecești ca un instrument al puterii. Mai mult decât atât, aceasta a fost considerate de către greci o condiție imperativă pentru a stăpâni Asia. Totuși, necesită observat faptul că sursele grecești accentuează importanța utilizării acestui instrument al puterii, dar în același(…)

The Politics of Power: The Rise and Fall of the Deinomenid Dynasty in Fifth-century Sicily

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 123-141 Lynette G. MITCHELL ABSTRACT In the Greek world, power was based on charismatic aretē, excellence. For that reason, rulers had to prove their charismatic qualities in order to rule. However, maintaining charismatic rule over generations was difficult, especially as the successor had to show himself to be more charismatic than his predecessor. In this chapter, we will consider the rule of the Deinomenids in late sixth- and early fifth-century Sicily. We will see how power was established through the charismatic activities of the older brother (Gelon), and how the younger brother (Hieron) then had to assert his position in relation to his elder brother. Drawing on Graeber and Sahlins’ model of the metaperosn, this chapter will argue that in the dynastic succession between the Deinomenids, Hieron struggled to maintain charismatic legitimacy, which meant that power was lost, and the dynasty was overthrown. REZUMAT În(…)

Some Observations About Succession Principles in the Hittite New Kingdom

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 109-121 Siim MÕTTUS ABSTRACT The discussion about the principles of succession in the Hittite kingdom has been largely focused on the Old Kingdom period and not so much on its later history. But through a variety of sources (diplomatic treaties, oath impositions etc.) from the New Kingdom, one could take a gander at how the passing of the throne was viewed at those times. Unsurprisingly, similar to the previous era, the norm was still that a son of a king was to inherit the throne, but there are enough hints in the text that sometimes the political whims and needs of a king (and a queen) superseded tradition and succession rules were more fluid. In addition, the fact that certain kings felt the need to constantly take steps to legitimize and secure their and their successor’s position over rivalling branches of the royal family shows(…)

Justification of the Usurpation of Power by Hittite Kings

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 93-108 Vladimir SAZONOV, Mait KÕIV ABSTRACT The article explores the ways how Hittite kings justified their usurpations of power, such usurpations happening almost constantly during the whole period of the Hittite kingdom, from the Old Hittite period until the fall of the empire. It focuses on three outstanding texts illuminating prominent cases in the Hittite history: the Proclamation of Telepinu which gives important information about several usurpations during the late 17th and 16th century BC, the First Plague Prayer of Muršili I which illuminates the reaction to the 14th century BC usurpation of Šuppiluliuma I, and the Apology of Ḫattušili III from the 13th century BC, which stands out as our best example of justification of a successful usurpation in the ancient Near Eastern region. These three cases reveal different strategies of justification accepted by the Hittite kings. REZUMAT Acest articol explorează modul în care(…)