On the Lineage of King Telepinu

Sources on the reign of the Hittite king Telepinu, including the principle source in the form of an edict issued by the king himself, are unfortunately taciturn about his relationship to previous kings. Such information that we do have hints at two possibilities: he was either a son or a son-in-law of Ammuna, a previous ruler. He is tied to Huzziya I, a usurper, but the latter’s position in the dynasty is uncertain as well. This article makes the case for the view that Telepinu married into the royal family rather than being born into it, and Huzziya I was a lower-rank son who had to eliminate higher-standing candidates in order to ascend to the throne.

A Genealogy of Pythagoras

This article deals with different traditions of the genealogy of Pythagoras of Samos (c. 570–480 BC). It shows how three versions of Pythagoras’s lineage were combined in antiquity. Firstly, Pythagoras could be seen as the son of human parents who themselves descend from Ancaeus, the mythical founder and first king of Samos who is closely connected with both Greek and Near Eastern mythology. Secondly, there is the tradition that Pythagoras was the son of a human mother and Apollo, which goes together with the important role that this deity played in the religion of Pythagoreanism from the very start. Finally, the Pythagorean doctrine of metempsychosis holds another possibility in explaining Pythagoras’s genealogy that connects him directly with the shamanistic motif of the soul-journey. A distinct analysis of the sources shows that the symbiosis of all three traditions was obviously the most common way of explaining Pythagoras’s genealogy.

The Origin Myths as a Possible Basis for Genealogy of the Inca Imperial Dynasty in Ancient Peru

This article discusses whether the Peruvian myths could help to confirm the thesis of the possible origin of the Inca imperial dynasty of pre-Columbian Peru from the Tiahuanaco culture, and shows that the purpose of the official ideology of the Incas was to justify the descent of the imperial dynasty directly from the gods. In the focus are origin myths of the Incas and archaeological data. Manco Capak who supposedly ruled the Inca at the time of their arrival at the Cuzco Valley, became the first half-legendary ruler of the country and started the official Inca dynasty. Two versions of origin myth end with the account of building Cuzco city by Manco in the name of Viracocha the Creator and Inti the sun god. The founding of city in the name of two gods could be interpreted in a manner uniquely provident and theocratic for the history of the Andean state Tahuantinsuyu: Viracocha had provided that Manco’s tribe will rule the world, and Manco started to carry it out at the will and guidance of god Inti. Thus, the civilisational mission of the Inca found a theological explanation as well. The ethnocentric and imperialist origin myth formed the ideological foundation for establishing so-called early totalitarian state. Ancient Peruvian myths can also be effectively seen in the context of genealogical interpretation of the imperial dynasty of Incas.