Posts by Stefan Caliniuc:

«Like an unseen god» (Ctesias F1b §21, 7 Lenfant): The Unapproachability of the Near Eastern Kings in Greek Sources as Tool of Power

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 143-156 Luca MACALE ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to review the inaccessibility of the Near Eastern kings in Greek sources as a tool of power: inaccessibility, in fact, was considered by the Greeks an essential feature in order to rule over Asia; nonetheless, it is important to note that Greek sources on the one hand emphasize the importance and the political use of this tool and, on the other hand, reflect on the weakness of power built through the king’s inaccessibility. REZUMAT Obiectivul acestui articol este de a analiza felul în care inaccesibilitatea suveranilor din Orientul Apropiat a fost prezentată în sursele grecești ca un instrument al puterii. Mai mult decât atât, aceasta a fost considerate de către greci o condiție imperativă pentru a stăpâni Asia. Totuși, necesită observat faptul că sursele grecești accentuează importanța utilizării acestui instrument al puterii, dar în același(…)

The Politics of Power: The Rise and Fall of the Deinomenid Dynasty in Fifth-century Sicily

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 123-141 Lynette G. MITCHELL ABSTRACT In the Greek world, power was based on charismatic aretē, excellence. For that reason, rulers had to prove their charismatic qualities in order to rule. However, maintaining charismatic rule over generations was difficult, especially as the successor had to show himself to be more charismatic than his predecessor. In this chapter, we will consider the rule of the Deinomenids in late sixth- and early fifth-century Sicily. We will see how power was established through the charismatic activities of the older brother (Gelon), and how the younger brother (Hieron) then had to assert his position in relation to his elder brother. Drawing on Graeber and Sahlins’ model of the metaperosn, this chapter will argue that in the dynastic succession between the Deinomenids, Hieron struggled to maintain charismatic legitimacy, which meant that power was lost, and the dynasty was overthrown. REZUMAT În(…)

Some Observations About Succession Principles in the Hittite New Kingdom

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 109-121 Siim MÕTTUS ABSTRACT The discussion about the principles of succession in the Hittite kingdom has been largely focused on the Old Kingdom period and not so much on its later history. But through a variety of sources (diplomatic treaties, oath impositions etc.) from the New Kingdom, one could take a gander at how the passing of the throne was viewed at those times. Unsurprisingly, similar to the previous era, the norm was still that a son of a king was to inherit the throne, but there are enough hints in the text that sometimes the political whims and needs of a king (and a queen) superseded tradition and succession rules were more fluid. In addition, the fact that certain kings felt the need to constantly take steps to legitimize and secure their and their successor’s position over rivalling branches of the royal family shows(…)

Justification of the Usurpation of Power by Hittite Kings

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 93-108 Vladimir SAZONOV, Mait KÕIV ABSTRACT The article explores the ways how Hittite kings justified their usurpations of power, such usurpations happening almost constantly during the whole period of the Hittite kingdom, from the Old Hittite period until the fall of the empire. It focuses on three outstanding texts illuminating prominent cases in the Hittite history: the Proclamation of Telepinu which gives important information about several usurpations during the late 17th and 16th century BC, the First Plague Prayer of Muršili I which illuminates the reaction to the 14th century BC usurpation of Šuppiluliuma I, and the Apology of Ḫattušili III from the 13th century BC, which stands out as our best example of justification of a successful usurpation in the ancient Near Eastern region. These three cases reveal different strategies of justification accepted by the Hittite kings. REZUMAT Acest articol explorează modul în care(…)

Old Hittite Opposition in the Religious Aspect

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 83-92 Vladimir SHELESTIN ABSTRACT The paper proposes a new approach to the conflict between Hattušili I and Tawananna using the new interpretation of some historiolae of Zuwi’s ritual. A political interpretation of these historiolae explains their content better than a magical one. Tracing the parallels between the animal figures in Zuwi’s ritual and in the political rhetoric of Hattušili I allows us to reconstruct an alliance between the royal relatives as well as the priesthood being the opponents to the Old Hittite external expansion.   REZUMAT Studiul de față propune o nouă abordare cu privire la conflictul dintre Hattušili I și Tawananna pe baza unei noi analize asupra a unor historiolae din cadrul ritualului lui Zuwi. O interpretare politică a acestora poate explica întregul context mai bine decât una strict religioasă. Identificarea paralelelor dintre figurile animaliere din ritualul lui Zuwi și retorica politică a lui(…)

Egyptian Control in the Southern Levant and the Late Bronze Age Crisis

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 55-82 Andres Nõmmik ABSTRACT In the Late Bronze Age, Egypt controlled the city-states of the Southern Levant, even though local rulers maintained partial autonomy. However, the period ended with a crisis that seems to have considerably changed the local power structures along with the disappearance of the Egyptian empire in the region. This paper investigates shows how both Egyptian power and its relatively rapid disappearance worsened the crisis. Three factors are highlighted: Egyptian policy of weakening the defensive capabilities of Levantine city-states, the Egyptians’ demand for different resources and how these two aspects made city-states unable to adapt successfully to the new post- Egyptian situation.   REZUMAT În Epoca Târzie a Bronzului, Egiptul controla orașele-stat din sudul Levantului, în ciuda faptului că liderii locali încă păstrau o oarecare autonomie. Totuși, această perioadă s-a încheiat printr-o criză care a modificat profund structurile puterilor locale, împreună cu(…)

Religious Syncretism and Control Over the Territory: Pharaohs in Southern Levant During the Late Bronze Age

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 41-54 Giulia TUCCI ABSTRACT Egyptian domination on the territories of Southern Levant during the Late Bronze Age brought the conquerors to maintain close contacts with the local population. Among other techniques of domination, the Pharaohs made massive use of political and religious propaganda. The identification of some divinities of the Egyptian and Palestinian Pantheons enabled both populations to share the same places of worship, which promoted contact with local communities and made integration and life together possible. This cultural entanglement operation had both ideological and functional goals. Palestinian shrines and temples became multifunctional centers well integrated into the socio-cultural context, used as the centers for the collection of taxes imposed by the Egyptian rulers.   REZUMAT Dominația Egiptului asupra teritoriilor din sudul Levantului pe parcursul Epocii Târzii a Bronzului i-a adus pe cuceritori în situația de a menține contacte strânse cu populațiile locale. Printre alte(…)

Sumerischer Widerstand gegen semitische Herrschaft Migration, Machtkämpfe und Demographie im 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr.

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 11-40 Walter Sommerfeld   ABSTRACT This study deals with historical and demographic aspects from the early history of Mesopotamia. 1 The history of the immigration of the Semites in the 3rd millennium B.C. is presented from the oldest evidence to the domination of the Akkadian Empire (ca. 2900-2300). Especially the names of persons and places are informative. The integration into the autochthonous Sumerian society seems to have proceeded largely without conflict. 2 After the Semitic dynasty of Akkade had gained dominance for about 150 years around 2300, there are detailed reports about several large uprisings in Sumer. Their backgrounds are analysed. 3 From the detailed data on the high numbers of victims, the question of the consequences for Sumerian society arises. Various methods of historical demography are presented, the results of research are referred to, conclusions on population density are attempted, and strategies for conflict(…)