The invention of the alphabet is still a problem for the contemporary historiography, archaeology and linguistics. This study emphasizes some of the most important aspects of this process. After a critical review of the most important theories, the author takes into consideration the issue of the author and the reason of inventing the vowels. The latter is presented here as a linguistic necessity.
In this paper we set out to analyze the internal organization of professional associations based on statutory provisions. These statutes include information about how an association was founded, the terms on which different people could be admitted or could leave the group, the duties of the president, the identity of the members of the associations, the regulations regarding the conduct of the members, the mutual assistance given to members in difficulty, the payment of contributions to the functioning of the association, the joint payment of the fees for the right to exercise one’s profession, attending meetings and banquets, as well as the coercive measures imposed on those who break the rules agreed on by statute. The analysis of associative structures based on statutory provisions proves that, in Egypt, these bodies functioned in the same manner even before the Greek and Roman rule.
During the late Republic and the early Principate, the area under the direct control of Rome expanded considerably beyond the Alps, including a large portion of the north-werstern Danube basin. The situation offered the Aquileian trading families new opportunities to extend their sphere of activity. In this period, Italic merchants, most of them coming from Aquileian families, settled in the Roman centres along the “Amber Route”, establishing trade relationships with their hometown. The study of epigraphic evidence provides relevant elements in order to define the economic role of these families.
In the last decades the growing number of studies on the origin of Roman soldiers revealed new information concerning the mobility of the legions, the recruitment policy in the Roman Empire and also the role played by soldiers and veterans in the provincial society. The discovery of new sources changed the perception over the Roman army, its mobility and adaptability. In this context, this study analyzes the inscriptions of the Legio V Macedonica discovered at Troesmis in which the origin of the soldiers is clearly stated. The aims of this paper are to identify the legionaries’ origin and to highlight the main aspects of a possible recruitment pattern specific to Moesia Inferior.