LATEST ARTICLES IN STUDIA ANTIQUA ET ARCHAEOLOGICA

Les militaires provenant du milieu rural de la Mésie Inférieure dont l’origine est certaine: les cas des cohortes prétoriennes

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 467-477 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-13 Lucreţiu MIHAILESCU-BÎRLIBA ABSTRACT Our main goal here is not to peruse the development of the sanctuary or its relation to the political setting as this would be a topic for further analyses. We intend to present in this article some preliminary observations on the mantic techniques, their use, evolution and the credibility of some sources..   KEYWORDS Moesia Inferior, pretorian cohorts, rural milieu, Roman army.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Divine and Human Interactions. Talking to Gods at Dodona

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 459-466 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-12 Iulian MOGA ABSTRACT Our main goal here is not to peruse the development of the sanctuary or its relation to the political setting as this would be a topic for further analyses. We intend to present in this article some preliminary observations on the mantic techniques, their use, evolution and the credibility of some sources..   KEYWORDS Dodona, oracle, mantic techniques, selloi, peleiades.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Apuntes para una ideología de la guerra y la paz en época Antonina: ¿tradición o cambio?

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 425-466 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-11 Andrés Sáez GEOFFROY ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to analyse the conception of war ideology and peace during the Antonine dynasty (96-192) by using comparative criteria. To the elements which survived from the 1st century are added new aspects specific to the 2nd century. The analysis was built on two levels, first, the narrative construction of war ideals and peace, and second, the numismatic presence of some values such as peace and victory, reflected by the interests and ideals of Roman Emperors. We are going to show that during the 2nd century there was an ideological diversification of topics related to war and peace, keeeping nevertheless certain symbols and ideals from previous times, all issues which led to a renewal of the idea of pax romana.   KEYWORDS Ideología, pax romana, victoria romana, Antoninos.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

The iconographical and mythological contexts of serpent(s)-fighting scene on the Old Assyrian seal impression from Kültepe (the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts I 2 b 1591)

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 403-423 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-10 ANASTASIA YASENOVSKAYA, VLADIMIR SHELESTIN, ALEXANDRE NEMIROVSKY ABSTRACT An impression of an Old Assyrian seal from Kültepe from collection of Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow carries an image that was not recognized but by present authors and is of great interest as it depicts a scene of a hero’s battle with a serpent-like demonic character (most likely, this is a double or two-headed monster). Rarity of serpent-fighting scenes in the Ancient Near Eastern art makes it important to study the composition and plot of the impression in its traceable iconographical and mythological contexts, in order to establish its cultural connotations (Anatolian, Syrian, Mesopotamian), considering that Kültepe was the center of interaction and synthesis of several cultural traditions. It turns out that the closest iconographical and mythological parallels to the image in study can be found in Eastern Anatolia and its(…)

Understanding technological innovations through experiment. Construction and testing of Chalcolithic pottery kilns

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 387-401 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-9 Felix-Adrian TENCARIU, Radu BRUNCHI, Stanislav ȚERNA, Ana DROB, Maria-Cristina CIOBANU, Andreea VORNICU-ȚERNA, Casandra BRAȘOVEANU, Denisa ADUMITROAIEI ABSTRACT Besides its contribution to understanding the formation process of large settlements and complex social organization in the late period of Cucuteni-Trypillia, the site of Stolniceni (Republic of Moldova) provided new data on the construction and spatial distribution within the site of pottery kilns. The extensive magnetic surveys revealed a large settlement, with more than 350 burnt dwellings, hundreds of pits, ditches, paths, and 19 kilns. Of the latter, four were excavated during the 2016-2018 campaigns. Three kilns were more or less similar in terms of sizes and construction, belonging to the “simple”, dual chambered, updraught type. The best-preserved of them already served as model for a published experiment conducted in 2017 near the Stolniceni archaeological base. The fourth provided several surprising building features, like six(…)

Preliminary considerations on the decoration of the anthropomorphic plastic from the Cucuteni A-B settlement of Băiceni – Dîmbul Morii (com. Cucuteni, Iași county).

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 375-386 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-8 Radu-Ștefan BALAUR ABSTRACT Anthropomorphic and zoomorphic plastics are often associated with complex manifestations of the spiritual life of Cucuteni communities. Therefore, knowledge and interpretation of anthropomorphic representations are necessary to have a better picture of the role played in the daily and spiritual life of prehistoric communities. The Cucuteni A-B settlement from Dâmbul Morii provides an important number of such pieces that will complete the data known so far. In this study, attention will be paid to plastic representations with painted, incised, and plastic decorations. Therefore, a batch of 27 anthropomorphic figurines was analyzed, some in a fragmentary state. Based on the decor analysis, a clear separation of figurines by gender was possible.   KEYWORDS Cucuteni culture, phase A-B, Dîmbul Morii, antropomorphic figurines, painted decoration.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Greek rulers and imperial powers in Western Anatolia (8th–6th centuries BC1)

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 357-373 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-7 Mait KÕIV ABSTRACT The article explores the cultural and political interaction between the Anatolian kingdoms and the elites of the Greek poleis on the Anatolian coast, with special attention to Archaic Ephesos for which relatively good evidence for the relations with Lydia is available. It demonstrates how the neighbouring hegemonic monarchies provided imitable examples for the Greek elite leaders and offered real opportunities for claiming, legitimating and entrenching their power. This shows, on the one hand, how the elites on the fringes of an empire could profit from imperial power, how the mild influence of an empire shaped the internal order of the communities in its sphere of influence by promoting the position of the local leaders. On the other hand, this sheds light on the strategies used by empires for attaining control of strategically important points on their outskirts.   KEYWORDS(…)

Gods in Wars: Divine Support and the Theological Justification of War in Ancient Anatolia and North Syria

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 331-355 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-6 Vladimir SAZONOV, Joanna TÖYRÄÄNVUORI ABSTRACT In this article, the authors examine the divine support and religious justification of wars by Anatolian and North Syrian rulers in the Late Bronze Age, an epoch of international diplomacy. Notable is that many wars and conflicts in the region of Anatolia and North Syria took place in this period, which may have occasioned an increasing need to justify them by appeal to divinities.   KEYWORDS gods in war, justification of war, divine support, Anatolia, North Syria, Hittites, Ugarit, Alalakh.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Trial by Water through the Ages

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 301-330 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-5 Joanna TÖYRÄÄNVUORI ABSTRACT The concept of trial by water or water ordeal is best known to the wider public through European witch trials from the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, but the practiced is first attested in near eastern texts from the Middle Bronze Age (2200–1550 BCE). The depiction of the medieval trials is largely folkloric, such trials were nonetheless known throughout the ancient world. The best evidence for ordeal by river is found in the letters from the clay tablet archives of Mari on the Upper Euphrates. A central site for divine arbitration among the Amorite kingdoms, the practice seems to have dwindled after the destruction of Mari and its cultic sites in 1759 BCE. Reviewing the ancient evidence for trial by water, this article demonstrates how the trials were used for a particular purpose: to verify the(…)

The Long Path of Nanāia from Mesopotamia to Central and South Asia

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 279-299 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-4 Andrew SCHUMANN, Vladimir SAZONOV ABSTRACT In this paper we show that the Mesopotamian goddess Nanāia had some attributes (such as ‘warrior goddess’ and ‘sitting on a tiger/lion/standing with a lion/lions’) which were preserved in her worship from the period of Ur III (the second millennium BC) in Mesopotamia up to the period of the Kuṣāṇas and Kūšānšāhs (from the 1st century AD to the late 4th century AD), and even up to the period of later Nomadic dynasties of Northern India, such as the Kidarites and Hephthalites (from the 4th century AD to the 8th century AD) in Central and South Asia. In later stages we detect early Hindu images of Nanāia presented as Durgā as well as early Hindu images of the divine couple Oešo and Nanāia presented as Umāmaheśvara. So, the standard Indian iconographic motif of Durgā could be traced(…)

The Identity of Martu (dMAR.TU) in the Ur III Period

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2): 267-278 DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-2-3 Andreas JOHANDI ABSTRACT The main purpose of this article is to study the divine figure(s) who hid behind the writing dMAR.TU during the Ur III period. The question is posed whether this writing signified only Martu/Amurru, the Amorite deity, or is there any reason to believe that Martu was not the only divine concept that stood behind this writing. As we know, in some other cases in Mesopotamian religion, the names of several deities were written in the same way (with the same signs). Some earlier studies have assumed that there was a connection between the similarly named gods Martu and Marduk. In the second part of the article, this question is revisited and it is asked whether the “other” dMAR.TU could be identical with Marduk, the later king of the gods in Mesopotamia. Finally, the relationship of dMAR.TU to the divine(…)