Some Observations About Succession Principles in the Hittite New Kingdom

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 109-121 Siim MÕTTUS DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-7 ABSTRACT The discussion about the principles of succession in the Hittite kingdom has been largely focused on the Old Kingdom period and not so much on its later history. But through a variety of sources (diplomatic treaties, oath impositions etc.) from the New Kingdom, one could take a gander at how the passing of the throne was viewed at those times. Unsurprisingly, similar to the previous era, the norm was still that a son of a king was to inherit the throne, but there are enough hints in the text that sometimes the political whims and needs of a king (and a queen) superseded tradition and succession rules were more fluid. In addition, the fact that certain kings felt the need to constantly take steps to legitimize and secure their and their successor’s position over rivalling branches of the royal(…)

Justification of the Usurpation of Power by Hittite Kings

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 93-108 Vladimir SAZONOV, Mait KÕIV DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-6 ABSTRACT The article explores the ways how Hittite kings justified their usurpations of power, such usurpations happening almost constantly during the whole period of the Hittite kingdom, from the Old Hittite period until the fall of the empire. It focuses on three outstanding texts illuminating prominent cases in the Hittite history: the Proclamation of Telepinu which gives important information about several usurpations during the late 17th and 16th century BC, the First Plague Prayer of Muršili I which illuminates the reaction to the 14th century BC usurpation of Šuppiluliuma I, and the Apology of Ḫattušili III from the 13th century BC, which stands out as our best example of justification of a successful usurpation in the ancient Near Eastern region. These three cases reveal different strategies of justification accepted by the Hittite kings. REZUMAT Acest articol explorează modul(…)

Old Hittite Opposition in the Religious Aspect

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 83-92 Vladimir SHELESTIN DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-5 ABSTRACT The paper proposes a new approach to the conflict between Hattušili I and Tawananna using the new interpretation of some historiolae of Zuwi’s ritual. A political interpretation of these historiolae explains their content better than a magical one. Tracing the parallels between the animal figures in Zuwi’s ritual and in the political rhetoric of Hattušili I allows us to reconstruct an alliance between the royal relatives as well as the priesthood being the opponents to the Old Hittite external expansion.   REZUMAT Studiul de față propune o nouă abordare cu privire la conflictul dintre Hattušili I și Tawananna pe baza unei noi analize asupra a unor historiolae din cadrul ritualului lui Zuwi. O interpretare politică a acestora poate explica întregul context mai bine decât una strict religioasă. Identificarea paralelelor dintre figurile animaliere din ritualul lui Zuwi și retorica politică(…)

Egyptian Control in the Southern Levant and the Late Bronze Age Crisis

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 55-82 Andres Nõmmik DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-4 ABSTRACT In the Late Bronze Age, Egypt controlled the city-states of the Southern Levant, even though local rulers maintained partial autonomy. However, the period ended with a crisis that seems to have considerably changed the local power structures along with the disappearance of the Egyptian empire in the region. This paper investigates shows how both Egyptian power and its relatively rapid disappearance worsened the crisis. Three factors are highlighted: Egyptian policy of weakening the defensive capabilities of Levantine city-states, the Egyptians’ demand for different resources and how these two aspects made city-states unable to adapt successfully to the new post- Egyptian situation.   REZUMAT În Epoca Târzie a Bronzului, Egiptul controla orașele-stat din sudul Levantului, în ciuda faptului că liderii locali încă păstrau o oarecare autonomie. Totuși, această perioadă s-a încheiat printr-o criză care a modificat profund structurile puterilor locale,(…)

Religious Syncretism and Control Over the Territory: Pharaohs in Southern Levant During the Late Bronze Age

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 41-54 Giulia TUCCI DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-3 ABSTRACT Egyptian domination on the territories of Southern Levant during the Late Bronze Age brought the conquerors to maintain close contacts with the local population. Among other techniques of domination, the Pharaohs made massive use of political and religious propaganda. The identification of some divinities of the Egyptian and Palestinian Pantheons enabled both populations to share the same places of worship, which promoted contact with local communities and made integration and life together possible. This cultural entanglement operation had both ideological and functional goals. Palestinian shrines and temples became multifunctional centers well integrated into the socio-cultural context, used as the centers for the collection of taxes imposed by the Egyptian rulers.   REZUMAT Dominația Egiptului asupra teritoriilor din sudul Levantului pe parcursul Epocii Târzii a Bronzului i-a adus pe cuceritori în situația de a menține contacte strânse cu populațiile locale.(…)

Sumerischer Widerstand gegen semitische Herrschaft Migration, Machtkämpfe und Demographie im 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr.

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 11-40 Walter Sommerfeld DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-2 ABSTRACT This study deals with historical and demographic aspects from the early history of Mesopotamia. 1 The history of the immigration of the Semites in the 3rd millennium B.C. is presented from the oldest evidence to the domination of the Akkadian Empire (ca. 2900-2300). Especially the names of persons and places are informative. The integration into the autochthonous Sumerian society seems to have proceeded largely without conflict. 2 After the Semitic dynasty of Akkade had gained dominance for about 150 years around 2300, there are detailed reports about several large uprisings in Sumer. Their backgrounds are analysed. 3 From the detailed data on the high numbers of victims, the question of the consequences for Sumerian society arises. Various methods of historical demography are presented, the results of research are referred to, conclusions on population density are attempted, and strategies for(…)

Same or different? Interdisciplinary analyses on the Costișa and Monteoru pottery from Siliștea-Pe Cetățuie settlement

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 158-193 Ana DROB, Neculai BOLOHAN, Bogdan RĂȚOI, Sebastian DROB DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-9 ABSTRACT The archaeometric study of prehistoric pottery is an effective tool for investigating this abundant category of artifacts from an archaeological site. In this study, the physicochemical analyses used are optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μFTIR). Through these techniques were studied 48 ceramic fragments belonging to the Costișa and Monteoru ceramic groups from the Middle Bronze Age settlement from Siliștea-Pe Cetățuie. Also, the ceramic fragments were investigated macroscopically, using criteria such as color, production technique, type, size, functionality and category of the vessel. The obtained results provided important data related to the ceramic technologies of the two communities from the studied settlement.   KEYWORDS pottery, archaeometric analysis, Middle Bronze Age, OM, SEM-EDX, μFTIR   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Drajna type bronze axe (Nackenknaufäxte) from Eastern Romania

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 142-157 Vasile DIACONU DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-8 ABSTRACT The author presents in this article an exceptional bronze piece, accidentally discovered on the territory of Țibucani village, Neamț County. It is an axe belonging to the Drajna type, whose usual area of spatial distribution corresponds to the northwestern part of Romania and the northeastern Hungary. In order to create an overview all the analogies from the Romanian territory are presented. From a chronological point of view, Drajna type axes are specific to the Late Bronze Age (Bz D) and appear mainly in metal hoards. The specimen from Țibucani distinguishes by the meandering decoration from it’s edge, which finds good analogies on other bronze axes, or on some bone and antler objects, discovered mainly in the area of Noua culture. As its features indicate, the axe that we discussed constitutes an object of prestige, that reached the area east(…)

Guarding what? A Middle Bronze Age fortification near Moldova River Valley

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 131-141 Alexandru GAFINCU, Vasile DIACONU DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-7 ABSTRACT This study aims to present a fortified settlement located near Subcarpathian area, at a small distance from Moldova River Valley (Eastern Romania). The site was known in the archaeological literature but because of the inconclusiveartifactsthe cultural and chronological association was mistaken. Placed in a dominant position and protected by two defensive ditches, the archaeological site belongs to the Middle Bronze Age period, Costișa culture. In the close proximity, was discovered an unfortified settlement, with contemporaneous artifacts, and the relation between these two sites it is indisputable.   KEYWORDS Subcarpathian, Middle Bronze Age, fortification, surveillance.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

New discoveries concerning the end of the Bronze Age in Jijia catchment

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 104-130 Casandra BRAȘOVEANU, Radu-Alexandru BRUNCHI DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-6 ABSTRACT The research aims to introduce into the scientific circuit a significant number of settlements specific to Late Bronze Age, which present ashmounds on the soil surface, identified using aerial images and LiDAR measurements. The subsequent verification of the settlements and the identification of archeological material allowed a precise chronological and cultural framing of the 72 sites.   KEYWORDS Late Bronze Age, Noua, settlements, ashmounds, aerial photographs, LiDAR.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)