Through Geometry Towards Functionality. Case Study: Noua pottery from Jijia catchment, NE Romania

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(2): 296-318 Casandra BRAȘOVEANU ABSTRACT During Late Bronze Age, the evolutions of previous archaeological cultures (from the Middle Bronze Age) are continued and completed, but there are also two important cultural complexes emerging, namely: Noua-Sabatinovka-Coslogeni and Zimnicea-Plovdiv. The subject of interest in the present study is represented by Noua culture, attested in a vast area, from the middle and upper Dniester, to the east of Apuseni Mountains and from the Subcarpathian region of Ukraine to the south of the forest-steppe area between Siret and Prut Rivers. Although, over time, the specific communities of this cultural manifestation have been investigated in numerous specialized studies, the interdisciplinary methods used in recent years can offer new information that contribute to the obtaining of a much clearer picture regarding the behavior of the human groups in question. In this sense, in the present paper, special attention was paid to the(…)

Cucuteni C type pottery from the Chalcholithic settlement Băiceni-Dâmbul Morii (Iasi County, Romania)

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(2): 282-294  Radu-Ștefan BALAUR ABSTRACT The archaeological research carried out in the Dâmbul Morii settlement led to the identification of  362 fragments of Cucuteni C type ceramic, either in the inventory of the dwellings or outside them. In the present study, we will discuss, based on these fragments, the manufacturing technology, the shapes and the decoration. Technologically, Cucuteni C type pottery was made from an inhomogeneous, coarse paste, which used crushed shells or crushed snails in the paste, mixed with large-grained sand, and less often crushed shards, pebbles or plant remains. In the Cucuteni A-B phase, there are also documented cases in which the pottery was made of a finer paste, without the crushed shell, of a reddish-brick color, with a mixture of sand, documented by the discoveries from Traian – Dealul Fântanilor. REZUMAT Cercetările arheologice desfășurate la Dâmbul Morii au dus la identificarea unui număr(…)

A chalcolithic pottery kiln from the Cucuteni-Cetățuie settlement (Iași County, Romania)

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(2): 266-281 Felix-Adrian TENCARIU, Maria-Cristina CIOBANU, Andrei ASĂNDULESEI, George BODI, Bogdan-Ștefan NOVAC ABSTRACT As a result of the magnetic survey on an area of ​​more than five hectares, located south-west of Cetățuie, we are currently aware of an extension of the Cucutenian habitation, consisting of numerous burned and unburned structures, pits and two defensive ditches in the form of circular arcs. The magnetic map allowed, beginning with the 2017 campaign, the placement of smaller (test trenches) or larger excavation units for the verification of various types of anomalies (burnt houses, defence ditch, pits). In the last (2022) campaign, in addition to investigating a defensive ditch and a dwelling, it was decided to excavate also an anomaly initially considered a pit. The surprise was the identification of a pottery kiln, belonging to phase B of the Cucuteni culture, located in the immediate vicinity of the last defensive(…)

From Dacian Hillforts to Roman Forts: Making of the Roman Frontier on Mid-Olt River Valley

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 298-323 Ovidiu ȚENTEA, Florian MATEI-POPESCU, Vlad CĂLINA ABSTRACT Within this paper, the authors set out to update the latest interpretations on the location of Roman forts along the middle course of the Olt River. With the exception of the Hoghiz fort, all the other forts are located on the right bank of the Olt River. At the same time, information has been added on the presence of the previous Dacian fortifications in this area.   KEYWORDS Roman army, Dacia, Dacian fortifications, forts, limes.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Two bronze objects of Western origin in the Saharna microregion, Rezina district, Republic of Moldova

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 276-297 Aurel ZANOCI ABSTRACT In the Saharna microregion (Rezina district, Republic of Moldova), four settlements and one burial attributed to the Holercani-Hansca culture are currently known. In the settlements Saharna Mare / “Dealul Mănăstirii” and Saharna “Rude”, a bronze hairpin of Ösennadel type and a crescent pendant with vertically perforated shank were recently discovered. Both objects have many analogies in Transylvania as well as in Central Europe, being dated within the period Bz D – Ha A1. Along with the finds from Saharna microregion, in the area of the Holercani-Hansca culture, in the sites of Calfa, Holercani, Coșnița and others, other bronze artifacts are known, also of Western origin and having the same chronological markers. Thus, the presence of these objects denotes the connections of the communities from the Prut-Dniester area with Transylvania and Central Europe.   KEYWORDS Prut-Dniester area, Bz D – Ha A1(…)

An Eastern type bronze needle discovered at Șimleu Silvaniei, Sălaj County

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 257-275 Ioan BEJINARIU ABSTRACT The author publishes a bronze needle with a globular head and four conical knobs placed 3 cm below the head of the piece. The needle stem is made of round section. Dimensions: length – 18.60 cm; globular head diameter – 1.12 cm; the diameter of the bar between the head and the protuberances – 0.60 cm. The needle was accidentally discovered on the high plateaus of “Măgurii Șimleului”, north of the “Observator” point, most likely in the area of the site found at this place. Long-term, systematic and preventive archaeological research has shown that the site has been inhabited for several periods of prehistory, including the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. V. Dergačev attributes these needles to the Văleni type, stating that they are found both in the composition of some deposits and in the archaeological inventory of(…)

A new Late Bronze Age sceptre-pestle discovered at Limanu, Constanța County (SE Romania)

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 244-256 Sorin-Cristian AILINCĂI, Florian MIHAIL, Carmen ȘUȘMAN ABSTRACT Late Bronze Age stone sceptres/pestles are a category of artefacts enjoying a certain distinction, found across a vast area, from the western Black Sea to Central Asia. On this instance, we publish one such object discovered in Limanu, Constanta County (south-eastern Romania), which can be attributed to type II according to the typology established by Nikolaus Boroffka and Eugen Sava. Such sceptres/pestles are mostly made of local rock and can be assigned to the Noua-Sabatinovka-Coslogeni cultures. The low wear and tear of the pieces indicates usage. This may imply that the objects stopped being used shortly after their allocation or that they were used for ceremonial purposes for a short period.   KEYWORDS Dobruja, Limanu, Late Bronze Age, sceptre-pestle, Coslogeni culture.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Insights into the production technology of the Late Bronze Age pottery identified at Topolița (Neamț County)

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 194-243 Florica MĂȚĂU*, Vasile DIACONU, Mitică PINTILEI, Ovidiu CHIȘCAN, Alexandru STANCU ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to identify the technological features of the Late Bronze Age ceramic assemblage discovered at Topolița (Neamț County). The archaeological site is located in the Subcarpathian area of the eastern Romania and was assigned based on the typological features of the ceramic artefacts to the Noua culture (second half of the 16th century to the 12th century BC). The dataset investigated in this study consists in 30 samples, selected to represent the stylistic and functional variability detected at the site. For assessing the various stages of the chaîne opératoire (raw materials selection, paste preparation, manufacturing procedures, surface finishing and firing conditions), the pottery samples were studied by means of an integrated analytical approach combining macroscopic observation with petrographical and mineralogical investigations performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). This(…)

Show Trials and The Opposition to Pelopidas and Epameinondas

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 245-261 Salvatore TUFANO ABSTRACT The paper suggests that there are traces of political opposition in Thebes during the years of its hegemony in Greece (371-362 BCE). The analysis of a trial against Epameinondas in 369 BCE, signals this event as a political trial. Other episodes during these years demonstrate that this and other trials can be considered as examples of Schauprozess, as lately theorized by Koskenniemi. In a system where political opposition was restrained by the lack of institutional provisos, the trials were used to attack opponents, using legal means for achieving political ends. REZUMAT Articolul de față sugerează faptul că pot fi identificate anumite amprente ale unor confruntări de ordin politic în Theba pe parcursul hegemoniei sale asupra Greciei (371-362 î.Hr.). Analizarea procesului împotriva lui Epaminondas din 369 î.Hr. scoate în evidență caracterul politic al acestuia. Alte episoade identificate pe parcursul acelor ani demonstrează(…)

Compliance and Endurance. The Athenian Power Building through the Melian Dialogue

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 233-244 Eleni TZOVLA ABSTRACT The Melian dialogue in the 5th book of Thucydides can be seen as one of the most important texts for political science. Two opposing political ideas are confronted by the historian: on the one hand Thucydides presents the Athenians as promoters of the idea of legitimacy of unlimited growth of power; on the other hand, there were the Melians who did not accept the ‘law of the stronger’. The Melians were conquered, and their arguments could not save them, but in the longer perspective the Athenian empire was destined to collapse. Through the dialogue, Thucydides compares the ‘law of the stronger’ ignoring the rights of others, and the appeal to justice by the weaker party trying to demonstrate their reasons to oppose the imperialist power. REZUMAT Dialogul Melian din cartea a V-a a lui Tucidide poate fi văzut ca unul dintre(…)

Monarchy in the Iron Age Levant and Archaic Greece: the Rulers of Corinth in a Comparative Context

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 179-231 Mait KÕIV ABSTRACT Tyrannies emerging in the Greek poleis during the Archaic period (8.–6. centuries BC), among which the rule of the Kypselid dynasty in Corinth appears as an outstanding example, were in many respects comparable to the city-state monarchies in Ancient Near East, particularly in Iron Age Levant. The rulers performed important governmental functions and were able to legitimate their power for a notable period of time. However, differently from the East, these monarchies were never wholly entrenched and were eventually replaced by republican governments. The article explores the reason for this difference, suggesting that it was caused by the relative egalitarianism of the Greek society precluding an accumulation of sufficient resources for entrenching the power. REZUMAT Tiraniile apărute în cetățile grecești în timpul perioadei Arhaice (secolele VIII-VI î.Hr), în rândul cărora dinastia Kypselidă din Corint se remarcă în mod exceptional, au fost(…)