From Dacian Hillforts to Roman Forts: Making of the Roman Frontier on Mid-Olt River Valley

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 298-323 Ovidiu ȚENTEA, Florian MATEI-POPESCU, Vlad CĂLINA DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-14 ABSTRACT Within this paper, the authors set out to update the latest interpretations on the location of Roman forts along the middle course of the Olt River. With the exception of the Hoghiz fort, all the other forts are located on the right bank of the Olt River. At the same time, information has been added on the presence of the previous Dacian fortifications in this area.   KEYWORDS Roman army, Dacia, Dacian fortifications, forts, limes.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Two bronze objects of Western origin in the Saharna microregion, Rezina district, Republic of Moldova

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 276-297 Aurel ZANOCI DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-13 ABSTRACT In the Saharna microregion (Rezina district, Republic of Moldova), four settlements and one burial attributed to the Holercani-Hansca culture are currently known. In the settlements Saharna Mare / “Dealul Mănăstirii” and Saharna “Rude”, a bronze hairpin of Ösennadel type and a crescent pendant with vertically perforated shank were recently discovered. Both objects have many analogies in Transylvania as well as in Central Europe, being dated within the period Bz D – Ha A1. Along with the finds from Saharna microregion, in the area of the Holercani-Hansca culture, in the sites of Calfa, Holercani, Coșnița and others, other bronze artifacts are known, also of Western origin and having the same chronological markers. Thus, the presence of these objects denotes the connections of the communities from the Prut-Dniester area with Transylvania and Central Europe.   KEYWORDS Prut-Dniester area, Bz D –(…)

An Eastern type bronze needle discovered at Șimleu Silvaniei, Sălaj County

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 257-275 Ioan BEJINARIU DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-12 ABSTRACT The author publishes a bronze needle with a globular head and four conical knobs placed 3 cm below the head of the piece. The needle stem is made of round section. Dimensions: length – 18.60 cm; globular head diameter – 1.12 cm; the diameter of the bar between the head and the protuberances – 0.60 cm. The needle was accidentally discovered on the high plateaus of “Măgurii Șimleului”, north of the “Observator” point, most likely in the area of the site found at this place. Long-term, systematic and preventive archaeological research has shown that the site has been inhabited for several periods of prehistory, including the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. V. Dergačev attributes these needles to the Văleni type, stating that they are found both in the composition of some deposits and in the archaeological(…)

A new Late Bronze Age sceptre-pestle discovered at Limanu, Constanța County (SE Romania)

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 244-256 Sorin-Cristian AILINCĂI, Florian MIHAIL, Carmen ȘUȘMAN DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-11 ABSTRACT Late Bronze Age stone sceptres/pestles are a category of artefacts enjoying a certain distinction, found across a vast area, from the western Black Sea to Central Asia. On this instance, we publish one such object discovered in Limanu, Constanta County (south-eastern Romania), which can be attributed to type II according to the typology established by Nikolaus Boroffka and Eugen Sava. Such sceptres/pestles are mostly made of local rock and can be assigned to the Noua-Sabatinovka-Coslogeni cultures. The low wear and tear of the pieces indicates usage. This may imply that the objects stopped being used shortly after their allocation or that they were used for ceremonial purposes for a short period.   KEYWORDS Dobruja, Limanu, Late Bronze Age, sceptre-pestle, Coslogeni culture.   FULL ARTICLE Download PDF (free)

Insights into the production technology of the Late Bronze Age pottery identified at Topolița (Neamț County)

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 27(2)-Supplement: 194-243 Florica MĂȚĂU*, Vasile DIACONU, Mitică PINTILEI, Ovidiu CHIȘCAN, Alexandru STANCU DOI: 10.47743/saa-2021-27-3-10 ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to identify the technological features of the Late Bronze Age ceramic assemblage discovered at Topolița (Neamț County). The archaeological site is located in the Subcarpathian area of the eastern Romania and was assigned based on the typological features of the ceramic artefacts to the Noua culture (second half of the 16th century to the 12th century BC). The dataset investigated in this study consists in 30 samples, selected to represent the stylistic and functional variability detected at the site. For assessing the various stages of the chaîne opératoire (raw materials selection, paste preparation, manufacturing procedures, surface finishing and firing conditions), the pottery samples were studied by means of an integrated analytical approach combining macroscopic observation with petrographical and mineralogical investigations performed by X-ray powder diffraction(…)

Show Trials and The Opposition to Pelopidas and Epameinondas

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 245-261 Salvatore TUFANO DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-13 ABSTRACT The paper suggests that there are traces of political opposition in Thebes during the years of its hegemony in Greece (371-362 BCE). The analysis of a trial against Epameinondas in 369 BCE, signals this event as a political trial. Other episodes during these years demonstrate that this and other trials can be considered as examples of Schauprozess, as lately theorized by Koskenniemi. In a system where political opposition was restrained by the lack of institutional provisos, the trials were used to attack opponents, using legal means for achieving political ends. REZUMAT Articolul de față sugerează faptul că pot fi identificate anumite amprente ale unor confruntări de ordin politic în Theba pe parcursul hegemoniei sale asupra Greciei (371-362 î.Hr.). Analizarea procesului împotriva lui Epaminondas din 369 î.Hr. scoate în evidență caracterul politic al acestuia. Alte episoade identificate pe parcursul acelor(…)

Compliance and Endurance. The Athenian Power Building through the Melian Dialogue

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 233-244 Eleni TZOVLA DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-12 ABSTRACT The Melian dialogue in the 5th book of Thucydides can be seen as one of the most important texts for political science. Two opposing political ideas are confronted by the historian: on the one hand Thucydides presents the Athenians as promoters of the idea of legitimacy of unlimited growth of power; on the other hand, there were the Melians who did not accept the ‘law of the stronger’. The Melians were conquered, and their arguments could not save them, but in the longer perspective the Athenian empire was destined to collapse. Through the dialogue, Thucydides compares the ‘law of the stronger’ ignoring the rights of others, and the appeal to justice by the weaker party trying to demonstrate their reasons to oppose the imperialist power. REZUMAT Dialogul Melian din cartea a V-a a lui Tucidide poate fi văzut ca(…)

Monarchy in the Iron Age Levant and Archaic Greece: the Rulers of Corinth in a Comparative Context

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 179-231 Mait KÕIV DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-11 ABSTRACT Tyrannies emerging in the Greek poleis during the Archaic period (8.–6. centuries BC), among which the rule of the Kypselid dynasty in Corinth appears as an outstanding example, were in many respects comparable to the city-state monarchies in Ancient Near East, particularly in Iron Age Levant. The rulers performed important governmental functions and were able to legitimate their power for a notable period of time. However, differently from the East, these monarchies were never wholly entrenched and were eventually replaced by republican governments. The article explores the reason for this difference, suggesting that it was caused by the relative egalitarianism of the Greek society precluding an accumulation of sufficient resources for entrenching the power. REZUMAT Tiraniile apărute în cetățile grecești în timpul perioadei Arhaice (secolele VIII-VI î.Hr), în rândul cărora dinastia Kypselidă din Corint se remarcă în mod exceptional,(…)

The Tyranny of the Peisistratidai in Athens: Expenses, Revenues and the Opposition to the Sole Rule

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 157-178 Priit-Hendrik KALDMA DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-10 ABSTRACT The late archaic city-state of Athens was ruled first by Peisistratos who became a tyrant after three successive coup d’états. The rule of Peisistratos and his sons secured inner stability in Athens after the preceding internal conflicts. The tyrants promoted political and religious unification and centralization of the Athenian community, which involved the establishment or promotion of festivals and the construction of various public buildings. The architectural plans of the Peisistratids formed a major part of their politics. Their building policy required considerable resources, which could have been perceived as oppressive, and could have significantly contributed to their overthrowal. REZUMAT În perioada arhaică târzie, orașul-stat al Atenei a fost condus initial de către Peisistratos, care a devenit tiran după trei uzurpări succesive. Domnia lui Peisistratos și a fiilor săi a garantat securitatea internă a Atenei, în urma precedentelor conflicte.(…)

«Like an unseen god» (Ctesias F1b §21, 7 Lenfant): The Unapproachability of the Near Eastern Kings in Greek Sources as Tool of Power

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 143-156 Luca MACALE DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-9 ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to review the inaccessibility of the Near Eastern kings in Greek sources as a tool of power: inaccessibility, in fact, was considered by the Greeks an essential feature in order to rule over Asia; nonetheless, it is important to note that Greek sources on the one hand emphasize the importance and the political use of this tool and, on the other hand, reflect on the weakness of power built through the king’s inaccessibility. REZUMAT Obiectivul acestui articol este de a analiza felul în care inaccesibilitatea suveranilor din Orientul Apropiat a fost prezentată în sursele grecești ca un instrument al puterii. Mai mult decât atât, aceasta a fost considerate de către greci o condiție imperativă pentru a stăpâni Asia. Totuși, necesită observat faptul că sursele grecești accentuează importanța utilizării acestui instrument al puterii, dar(…)

The Politics of Power: The Rise and Fall of the Deinomenid Dynasty in Fifth-century Sicily

Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica 28(1): 123-141 Lynette G. MITCHELL DOI: 10.47743/saa-2022-28-1-8 ABSTRACT In the Greek world, power was based on charismatic aretē, excellence. For that reason, rulers had to prove their charismatic qualities in order to rule. However, maintaining charismatic rule over generations was difficult, especially as the successor had to show himself to be more charismatic than his predecessor. In this chapter, we will consider the rule of the Deinomenids in late sixth- and early fifth-century Sicily. We will see how power was established through the charismatic activities of the older brother (Gelon), and how the younger brother (Hieron) then had to assert his position in relation to his elder brother. Drawing on Graeber and Sahlins’ model of the metaperosn, this chapter will argue that in the dynastic succession between the Deinomenids, Hieron struggled to maintain charismatic legitimacy, which meant that power was lost, and the dynasty was overthrown.(…)