Finds in the Late Iron Age tradition from the Roman graves of Viminacium

The former Roman city and the legionary fort Viminacium lie under the fields of the modern villages of Stari Kostolac and Drmno, at the right Mlava bank, some 15 km to the north of Požarevac in Eastern Serbia. Viminacium was the capital of the Roman province of Upper Moesia (Moesia Superior) and also an important military stronghold at the northern border of the empire. During pre-Roman times, this area was inhabited by a mixed population, consisting of Celts and of a native Illyrian ethnic group, called by a common name of Scordisci. During the 1st century AD, the Dacians also inhabited this area. Until now, among numerous Viminacium graves (some 14,000), nineteen graves were specified as carriers of either Celtic-Scordiscian or Dacian Late Iron Age tradition. This number is surely bigger but by now, only about a thousand graves were published. “S”-profiled bowls were considered main features of graves with a Celtic-Scordiscian tradition, while Dacian pots were considered main features of graves with a Dacian Late Iron Age tradition. The paper deals with the finds themselves, but also with possible gender determinations of the deceased buried in these graves and with their social and economic status within the Roman society of Viminacium.

The population of Aquae Balissae (Pannonia Superior)

Aquae Balissae, known from the written and epigraphic sources also as ‘res publica Iasorum’ and ‘municipium Iasorum’, was a Roman town that developed in the territory of the Pannonian-Celtic tribe Iasi, situated between the rivers Drava and Sava in northern Croatia (Roman Pannonia Superior). The written sources mentioning this town are scanty, and so is the archaeological evidence, leaving the urbanism and architecture of Aquae Balissae practically at the level of a broad sketch. The evidence of stone monuments is not substantial either, but is quite variegated in terms of both the categories of monuments and artistic renderings. It therefore represents the main source for the research of the town’s population. In this paper a cross section of the population of Aquae Balissae has been attempted through a selection of stone monuments stemming from the town’s presumed ager and containing either an inscription alone or a combination of a relief and inscription. Of a total of 20 monuments nine are funerary, seven votive, and four honorary. They are here discussed in terms of the three most important aspects of the population of Aquae Balissae: (1) social status (the relationship between the civilians and military); (2) religious worship; (3) ethnic and geographical origin (the relationship between the local inhabitants and immigrants). Due to the limited evidence, the analyses produced here remain in the realm of indications rather than final conclusions.

A note on the nomenclature of the Thracian veterans

The author analyses the importance of the tribe in nomenclature of Thracian veterans. Despite its introduction probably in pre-provincial time, when part of the provincial elite gained Roman citizenship and therefore Roman names, a practice which continued decades after the establishment of the new province, it seems that the Roman tribe system remained unpopular and uncommon in Thrace and more or less isolated. The Roman tribe was used rarely and when used it was either in the nomenclature of the Thracian elite or of non-Thracian veterans settled in Thrace. The inscriptions also reveal that this practice was characteristic for a certain span of time, probably till the time of Hadrian.

Equites singulares Augusti originaires de la province de Dacie: épigraphie, onomastique, iconographie

The epigraphic testimonies left in Rome by the horsemen of the Imperial Guard (equites singulares Augusti) originating from Dacia allow us to question about the socio-cultural origin of these provincials and to make use of the data furnished by this epigraphic dossier (recruitment and career, networks of sociability, onomastics), before inspecting the typology of their funerary iconography.

Population dynamics at the spas of Roman Dacia. Case study: the population of Băile Herculane

The present study analyses the importance of the Băile Herculane spa resort, based on epigraphic discoveries and cartographic sources. Social mobility, along with the presence of urban elites from various towns, passing through, can shed some light on the renown enjoyed by the Băile Herculane hot springs during the Roman and Late Roman periods. The authors also attempt to research the local religious life, as well as the layout of the settlement’s sacred enclosures, an endeavour never before attempted. The results of such an analysis, in comparison with other spa resorts in Dacia, enables the possibility to understand how the town and its public edifices, dominant during the Roman period, developed, as well as the urban layout of Băile Herculane.

Intra-site organisation and population size in the Cucuteni A3 settlement of Războieni–Dealul Mare

In Romanian archaeology, the aspects related to demography are poorly presented. The present study combines the demographic data already known in the archaeological literature with geophysical surveys in order to obtain additional information relating to the social organization and population size. The research is focused on the Cucuteni A3 settlement of Războieni–Dealul Mare, that has benefited over the years from several geophysical surveys. The results regarding the spatial organisation and the delineation of the living space are impressive. From the data obtained we can achieve some demographic information.

What can aDNA analysis tell us more on an old funerary discovery?

This study presents the first ancient mitochondrial DNA (amtDNA) results obtained by sampling human bones selected from an Early Bronze Age funerary context with the aim of identifying the haplogroup and starting to build an amtDNA reference database based on samples selected from Eastern Romania. The human bones analysed in this study were part of the Stoicani “Cetățuia” (Galați county) necropolis located in the Covurlui Plateau. The M6 funerary context does not contain any grave goods, his chronological and cultural characteristics being inferred based on its association with similar funerary contexts in the necropolis. The amtDNA obtained by analysing osteological remains attributed to the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in the Eastern Romania region helped us to identify the coexistence of different communities in the timespan characterized by accentuated human group mobility.

Techniques used in decorating Hellenistic jewellery

This article presents a part of the decorative techniques used by the craftsman in Hellenistic period on jewellery — to be more precise, the techniques that not require adding new material to create a more colourful piece except enamel. The decision to describe the last technique is given by the repeated mention of the enamel in filigree technique but this method is a part of the polychrome techniques that use different materials or substances to give colour to the jewellery.

The Roman military diploma discovered at Atmageaua Tătărască – Sarsânlar (Zafirovo, Bulgaria)

A tabella II of a Roman military diploma, copied after an imperial constitution issued in AD 54 (CIL XVI 3) is published once again in these pages. On the basis of archival information and new research on the table, kept by the National Museum of Romanian History in Bucharest, the article provides a reconstruction of the text and short histories of the mentioned military units.

Purpurarii et vestiarii. El comercio de púrpuras y vestidos en Roma

The work analyses the production and marketing of purple in Roman times. The analysis of merchants related to the sale of purple, purpurarii, and merchants of the best fabrics and dresses, vestiarii, allow access to visitors were the characters involved with the making and marketing of clothing and fabrics in the Metropolis. The fame of certain colours soon attracted the attention of the Roman elites, and during the imperial period, the purple became a state issue, allowing its use by a small number of people linked to the emperor’s family. At this point we make a brief review of the different leges sumptuariae. In this regard, we have taken advantage of, in addition to commenting that the places were more important for the extraction of this dye, to comment that they were the diverse productive techniques of the Mediterranean and Atlantic purples.

Contribution sur le macellum d’Histria

L’existence du macellum à Histria fait la preuve sur la situation économique stable de la ville pendant toute l’époque romaine et sur la capacité de récupération de la communauté urbaine après les invasions de 238. Notre contribution est axée sur les caractéristiques de cet édifice et sur la reconstruction de macellum (par dons) afin de proposer une nouvelle hypothèse concernant l’emplacement de ce bâtiment à Histria.